Testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure that a single or multiple incision in one or both testicles removed one or more portions of testicular tissue to proceed to study and attempt to obtain sperm.
This intervention is indicated in the absence of sperm in the ejaculate, or when the quantity and / or quality of them is insufficient to try, with some chance of success, a technique of assisted reproduction. The goal is to live sperm to inject one on each partner's egg, after obtaining the latter by stimulation and ovarian puncture.
It will also be indicated in cases of obstruction of the seminal duct, which can result from many causes, both congenital and acquired. Stands between the congenital absence of the vas deferens, a pathology that is often associated with a disease called cystic fibrosis. Other causes of obstruction are infectious, traumatic or surgical (as practical after a vasectomy) origin, although in many other occasions does not detect the source of the obstruction. This surgery is performed under anesthesia and on an outpatient basis. It starts through a small incision in the scrotum, and through it is incident on the wall of one of the testicles and a small amount of testicular pulp, which is immediately processed in order to determine the possible presence of sperm capable extracted their reproductive use. If necessary, through this incision biopsy can be repeated in different areas of the same testis. If sperm are not obtained or are insufficient, the surgeon may decide to repeat the procedure in the other testicle. If it was of interest to study the functional status of the testicle or type of lesion present in it, you can send some of the material obtained at biopsy for histology.
Testicular biopsy to obtain sperm can be done prior to treatment with IVF or ICSI at the same day of oocyte collection. In the first case, it would be necessary to freeze sperm could be obtained, and thawed for later use. Sperm freezing associated with previous biopsy may deteriorate the quality and survival of some sperm, but allows greater assurance that the procedure is feasible as is known in advance the presence or absence of male gametes. Before the intervention, will require the practice of blood and desirable biomedical tests for each patient, in order to minimize the risks associated with the intervention. Therebetween relevant serological testing to rule lues infection, HIV, hepatitis B and C, or other infectious diseases, it is made.